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Machine Learning-Week 3 Discussion
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Logistic Regression Summarize what you learned from the videos by Hastie and Tibshirani on the classification task of logistic regression. Logistic Regression Summarize what you learned from the videos by Hastie and Tibshirani on the classification task of logistic regression.

Machine Learning-Week 3 Assignment
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Classification with logistic regression Write a fully executed R-Markdown program and submit a pdf / word or html file performing classification task on the Binary response variable from the Santander Bank Case Study. Make sure to try several permutations of the model before finding the best available model. Classification with logistic regression Write a fully executed R-Markdown program and submit a pdf / word or html file performing classification task on the Binary response variable from the Santander Bank Case Study. Make sure to try several permutations of the model before finding the best available model.

Visual Analytics-Week 3 Discussion
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Follow the instructions in the book to create a new project. Give it a name and an author. Execute the 3 code snippets from the preface to bring all the packages into this new project then create a new R Markdown document as instructed by the book. Load the tidyverse and socviz libaries. In order to execute code in an R Markdown object, the code must be enclosed by: ```{r}.....``` Use R studio to complete the following: 1. create a vector of the names of the members of your immediate family 2. display it 3. create a vector of numbers 4. find the mean of the numbers in the vector you created 5. assign the results of a function to an object 6. display the object 7. determine the class of the vector 8. change the class of the vector to character 9. show the new class 10. show the titanic dataframe 11. show the class of titanic 12. convert the titanic dataframe to a tibble 13. show the structure of various objects 14. show the structure of the mpg dataframe (mpg is an example dataset showing mileage for cars of various models and with different numbers of cylinders) 15. show the contents of the mpg dataframe 16. create a scatterplot of the mpg dataset 17. create an object called 'url' with the organ donation file in it 18. create an object with the organ donation data, find the structure of that object, load the gapminder dataset (watch this video to learn more about gapminder) 19. make a scatterplot of the gdpPercap and lifeexp Submit an R Markdown document by Sunday at midnight with this work in it. Show the graphs not the code. comment on the submissions of two classmates. Explain and interpret each visualization. Highlight your comments. Follow the instructions in the book to create a new project. Give it a name and an author. Execute the 3 code snippets from the preface to bring all the packages into this new project then create a new R Markdown document as instructed by the book. Load the tidyverse and socviz libaries. In order to execute code in an R Markdown object, the code must be enclosed by: ```{r}.....``` Use R studio to complete the following: 1. create a vector of the names of the members of your immediate family 2. display it 3. create a vector of numbers 4. find the mean of the numbers in the vector you created 5. assign the results of a function to an object 6. display the object 7. determine the class of the vector 8. change the class of the vector to character 9. show the new class 10. show the titanic dataframe 11. show the class of titanic 12. convert the titanic dataframe to a tibble 13. show the structure of various objects 14. show the structure of the mpg dataframe (mpg is an example dataset showing mileage for cars of various models and with different numbers of cylinders) 15. show the contents of the mpg dataframe 16. create a scatterplot of the mpg dataset 17. create an object called 'url' with the organ donation file in it 18. create an object with the organ donation data, find the structure of that object, load the gapminder dataset (watch this video to learn more about gapminder) 19. make a scatterplot of the gdpPercap and lifeexp Submit an R Markdown document by Sunday at midnight with this work in it. Show the graphs not the code. comment on the submissions of two classmates. Explain and interpret each visualization. Highlight your comments.

Data Mining and Statistical Modelling-Week 3 Discussion
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Describe an appropriate visualization technique for each of prediction, classification, time series forecasting, and unsupervised learning. Describe an appropriate visualization technique for each of prediction, classification, time series forecasting, and unsupervised learning.

Data Mining and Statistical Modelling-Week 3 Assignment
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Write a fully executed R-Markdown program and submit a pdf file solving and answering questions listed below under Problems at the end of chapter 3. For clarity, make sure to give an appropriate title to each section. Problem 1: Shipments of household appliances (a, c, d) Problem 2: Sales of riding mowers Problem 3: Laptop sales at a London computer chain (a, b) Problem 4: Laptop sales at a London computer chain (a, b) Write a fully executed R-Markdown program and submit a pdf file solving and answering questions listed below under Problems at the end of chapter 3. For clarity, make sure to give an appropriate title to each section. Problem 1: Shipments of household appliances (a, c, d) Problem 2: Sales of riding mowers Problem 3: Laptop sales at a London computer chain (a, b) Problem 4: Laptop sales at a London computer chain (a, b)

Marketing Strategies-Milestone 1
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This is the first of three papers that will lead you to, and be part of, your final paper. Using the approved company and product/service, you will answer the following questions: • Who are the competitors in this space? • What are the overarching benefits they have to offer the consumer? What do they offer that is different or attractive to the consumer? • What gap will you fill by offering your redefined or new product or service? This is the first of three papers that will lead you to, and be part of, your final paper. Using the approved company and product/service, you will answer the following questions: • Who are the competitors in this space? • What are the overarching benefits they have to offer the consumer? What do they offer that is different or attractive to the consumer? • What gap will you fill by offering your redefined or new product or service?

Managerial Finance-Week 11 Discussion
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Answer the following questions. 1) Please describe the weighted average cost of capital. How do firms use the weighted average cost of capital for decision making? 2) How are the costs of debt and equity calculated? Answer the following questions. 1) Please describe the weighted average cost of capital. How do firms use the weighted average cost of capital for decision making? 2) How are the costs of debt and equity calculated?

Managerial Finance-Week 11 Problem
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Chapter 12 7. Portfolio Risk and Return. Suppose that the S&P 500, with a beta of 1.0, has an expected return of 10% and T-bills provide a risk-free return of 4%. (LO12-1) a. How would you construct a portfolio from these two assets with an expected return of 8%? Specifically, what will be the weights in the S&P 500 versus T-bills? b. How would you construct a portfolio from these two assets with a beta of .4? c. Find the risk premiums of the portfolios in parts (a) and (b), and show that they are proportional to their betas. 8. Portfolio Risk and Return. According to the CAPM, would the expected rate of return on a security with a beta less than zero be more or less than the risk-free interest rate? Why would investors invest in such a security? (Hint: Look back to the auto and gold example in Chapter 11.) (LO12-1) 9. Risk and Return. Suppose that the risk premium on stocks and other securities did, in fact, rise with total risk (i.e., the variability of returns) rather than just market risk. Explain how investors could exploit the situation to create portfolios with high expected rates of return but low levels of risk. (LO12-2) Chapter 13 15. Capital Structure. In 2018, Caterpillar Inc. had about 595 million shares outstanding. Their book value was $23.00 per share, and the market price was $154.80 per share. The company’s balance sheet shows that the company had $24.8 billion of long-term debt, which was currently selling near par value. (LO13-3) a. What was Caterpillar’s book debt-to-value ratio? b. What was its market debt-to-value ratio? c. Which of these two measures should you use to calculate the company’s cost of capital? 16. Capital Structure. Here is a simplified balance sheet for Epicure Pizza (figures in $ millions): Assets Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity Current assets $ 80 Current liabilities $ 60 Fixed assets 125 Long-term debt 65 Equity 80 Total $205 Total $205 Note: There are 16 million shares outstanding. Epicure shares are currently priced at $12 each. (LO13-3) a. You wish to calculate Epicure’s WACC. What is the relevant figure for the company’s debt ratio? b. You now realize that since Epicure issued its debt, interest rates have fallen substantially. Do you need to revise your measure of the debt ratio upward or downward? 18. Cost of Debt. Olympic Sports has two issues of debt outstanding. One is a 9% coupon bond with a face value of $20 million, a maturity of 10 years, and a yield to maturity of 10%. The coupons are paid annually. The other bond issue has a maturity of 15 years, with coupons also paid annually, and a coupon rate of 10%. The face value of the issue is $25 million, and the issue sells for 94% of par value. The firm’s tax rate is 21%. (LO13-4) a. What is the before-tax cost of debt for Olympic? b. What is Olympic’s after-tax cost of debt? 19. Cost of Equity. Bunkhouse Electronics is a recently incorporated firm that makes electronic entertainment systems. Its earnings and dividends have been growing at a rate of 30%, and the current dividend yield is 2%. Its beta is 1.2, the market risk premium is 8%, and the risk-free rate is 4%. (LO13-4) a. Use the CAPM to estimate the firm’s cost of equity. b. Now use the constant growth model to estimate the cost of equity. c. Which of the two estimates is more reasonable? 20. Cost of Debt. Micro Spinoffs Inc. issued 20-year debt a year ago at par value with a coupon rate of 8%, paid annually. Today, the debt is selling at $1,050. If the firm’s tax bracket is 21%, what is its percentage cost of debt? (LO13-4) Chapter 12 7. Portfolio Risk and Return. Suppose that the S&P 500, with a beta of 1.0, has an expected return of 10% and T-bills provide a risk-free return of 4%. (LO12-1) a. How would you construct a portfolio from these two assets with an expected return of 8%? Specifically, what will be the weights in the S&P 500 versus T-bills? b. How would you construct a portfolio from these two assets with a beta of .4? c. Find the risk premiums of the portfolios in parts (a) and (b), and show that they are proportional to their betas. 8. Portfolio Risk and Return. According to the CAPM, would the expected rate of return on a security with a beta less than zero be more or less than the risk-free interest rate? Why would investors invest in such a security? (Hint: Look back to the auto and gold example in Chapter 11.) (LO12-1) 9. Risk and Return. Suppose that the risk premium on stocks and other securities did, in fact, rise with total risk (i.e., the variability of returns) rather than just market risk. Explain how investors could exploit the situation to create portfolios with high expected rates of return but low levels of risk. (LO12-2) Chapter 13 15. Capital Structure. In 2018, Caterpillar Inc. had about 595 million shares outstanding. Their book value was $23.00 per share, and the market price was $154.80 per share. The company’s balance sheet shows that the company had $24.8 billion of long-term debt, which was currently selling near par value. (LO13-3) a. What was Caterpillar’s book debt-to-value ratio? b. What was its market debt-to-value ratio? c. Which of these two measures should you use to calculate the company’s cost of capital? 16. Capital Structure. Here is a simplified balance sheet for Epicure Pizza (figures in $ millions): Assets Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity Current assets $ 80 Current liabilities $ 60 Fixed assets 125 Long-term debt 65 Equity 80 Total $205 Total $205 Note: There are 16 million shares outstanding. Epicure shares are currently priced at $12 each. (LO13-3) a. You wish to calculate Epicure’s WACC. What is the relevant figure for the company’s debt ratio? b. You now realize that since Epicure issued its debt, interest rates have fallen substantially. Do you need to revise your measure of the debt ratio upward or downward? 18. Cost of Debt. Olympic Sports has two issues of debt outstanding. One is a 9% coupon bond with a face value of $20 million, a maturity of 10 years, and a yield to maturity of 10%. The coupons are paid annually. The other bond issue has a maturity of 15 years, with coupons also paid annually, and a coupon rate of 10%. The face value of the issue is $25 million, and the issue sells for 94% of par value. The firm’s tax rate is 21%. (LO13-4) a. What is the before-tax cost of debt for Olympic? b. What is Olympic’s after-tax cost of debt? 19. Cost of Equity. Bunkhouse Electronics is a recently incorporated firm that makes electronic entertainment systems. Its earnings and dividends have been growing at a rate of 30%, and the current dividend yield is 2%. Its beta is 1.2, the market risk premium is 8%, and the risk-free rate is 4%. (LO13-4) a. Use the CAPM to estimate the firm’s cost of equity. b. Now use the constant growth model to estimate the cost of equity. c. Which of the two estimates is more reasonable? 20. Cost of Debt. Micro Spinoffs Inc. issued 20-year debt a year ago at par value with a coupon rate of 8%, paid annually. Today, the debt is selling at $1,050. If the firm’s tax bracket is 21%, what is its percentage cost of debt? (LO13-4)

Organizational Economics-Week 11 Discussion
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Discussion Board – Price Skimming Price skimming strategy is a new product strategy that results in a high initial product price being reduced over time as demand at the higher price is satisfied. Research a product or service that may have entered the market with a high initial price and now the demand at the higher price is satisfied. Discuss why you believe consumer demand has changed for this product or service which resulted in satisfaction of the market. Discussion Board – Price Skimming Price skimming strategy is a new product strategy that results in a high initial product price being reduced over time as demand at the higher price is satisfied. Research a product or service that may have entered the market with a high initial price and now the demand at the higher price is satisfied. Discuss why you believe consumer demand has changed for this product or service which resulted in satisfaction of the market.

Digital Forensics Tools and Techniques-Week 11 Assignment
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Using Chapter 10 as a reference, eExplain the concept of information stores. Why is an understanding of how different clients store messaging information critical to the success of an email search? Write your answer using a WORD document. Do your own work. Submit here. Note your Safe Assign score. Score must be less than 25 for full credit. You have three attempts. Using Chapter 10 as a reference, eExplain the concept of information stores. Why is an understanding of how different clients store messaging information critical to the success of an email search? Write your answer using a WORD document. Do your own work. Submit here. Note your Safe Assign score. Score must be less than 25 for full credit. You have three attempts.